Early Roman Period
The rising political and cultural status of the Hellenistic cities and the mingling of different groups led to cultural blending, yet also, at times, to alienation and opposition. Archaeological sites dating from this period, among them Caesarea, Samaria, Jericho, Masada, and Herodion, have revealed the remains of impressive construction by King Herod.
His crowning achievement, from the viewpoint of his Jewish subjects, was the Temple Mount and the Temple at its center. Jerusalem - the capital of the Jewish people - reached the height of its spiritual development at the end of the Second Temple period.
The achievements of Jewish society are recognizable even in the material culture of the period, as the archaeological finds attest: graves, ossuaries, houses, ritual baths (miqvaot), mosaics, wall paintings, and magnificent vessels of clay, glass, and stone have all been discovered. The archaeological finds, in addition to the historical documents, also testify to the destruction and ruin that befell Judea following the Great Revolt (66-70 CE).
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'Herodian' oil lamps
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