Late Roman Period
The intention of Emperor Hadrian, who began his rule in 117 CE, to rebuild Jerusalem as a pagan city named Aelia Capitolina, was one of the reasons for the outbreak of the Bar-Kokhba Revolt (132-135 CE). The most important remains from that period were discovered in subterranean networks of hideouts that were quarried by hand and intended for purposes of concealment in times of emergency and in caves of refuge, natural caves to which fugitives fled after the revolt was suppressed. Among the finds were written documents, coins, agricultural tools, vessels made of wood, metal and glass, and items of clothing, including woven cloth and sandals.
Following the Jewish revolts, the Romans reinforced their military control over the region. The aqueducts and the network of roads, along which milestones were placed, are clear manifestations of Imperial Roman construction meant to serve the needs of the Roman army, as well as trade and commerce. The center of Jewish life was transposed to the Galilee, where the governing institution, the Sanhedrin, was reinstalled. Magnificent synagogues discovered at many sites in the Galilee represent the achievements of Jewish art and architecture and give expression to the rehabilitation of the Jewish community toward the end of this period.

Young woman's sandals from a Judean desert cave
Bar-Kokhba War, 132-135 CE
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