Byzantine Period
The process of settlement advanced rapidly during this period, as Jewish settlements became well established in the Galilee, on the Golan, and along the edges of the Judean hills. The region as a whole, however, underwent a highly significant cultural process during the Byzantine period: the Christianization of and struggle against the pagan, Jewish, and Samaritan inhabitants.
Archaeological finds of this period reflect the merging of Greek-Hellenistic, Roman, and Christian cultures. The most salient finds of the Mishnaic and Talmudic periods are the synagogues, which had become the center of Jewish communal life following the destruction of the Temple. The architecture and art of these synagogues, and the issue of their dating, stand at the center of archaeological research of the period.

Clay oil lamp decorated with seven-branched
menorah, a shoval, and a shofar 4th century CE
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